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Status, Trends and Advances in Bioremediation pp. 22-48
Editors: Dr. Natchimuthu Karmegam
Dr. Mani Prakash
ISBN: 978-93-94174-13-9
Chapter 2
Advances and Challenges in Phytoremediation
P. Sumithira*
Research Coordinator, St. Anne’s Arts and Science College, Madhavaram, Chennai – 110, India
The conventional techniques of remediation seem to be progressively unreliable and inefficient, contaminated land management experts have adopted a plant-based technology described as ‘phytoremediation’ for effective detoxification and removal of contaminants in substrate environmental media. With complexity of environmental pollution, identification of appropriate remediation approach that deliver net environmental benefit and economic profit to the society is vital, while also focusing on the exploitation of plants genetic tools for more clarity on phyto tolerance, uptake and translocation of pollutants. Microbes-assisted phytoremediation (MAP) has gained attention in the past decade and tremendous research has been carried out globally to establish an efficient process for the treatment of various contaminants. MAP can be regarded as a multidimensional approach as it helps in the restoration of land, increases the survival potential of plants, sequestration of carbon dioxide and maintenance of biodiversity. Phytoremediation consists of four different plant based technologies, each having a different mechanism of action for the remediation of metal polluted soil, sediment or water.
Phytoremediation, Environmental management, Microorganisms, Wastewater treatment, Heavy metal
*Corresponding author; e-mail:
Cite this Chapter: Sumithira, P., 2022. Advances and challenges in phytoremediation. In: N. Karmegam and M. Prakash (Eds.), Status, Trends and Advances in Bioremediation. Excellent Publishers, India. pp. 22-48. doi:
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