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Water Crisis Management and Water Quality Analysis pp 46-54
Editors: Dr.K.Swathi (2024)
ISBN: 978-93-94174-99-3
Chapter 4
Water Softeners
S. Latha, U. Madhavi and M. Harishma*
Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam, Tirupati, Andhra Pradesh- 517502, India
Water is an inorganic Compound. It is transparent, colourless, odorless and tasteless substance. It is the life for all living organisms present on earth. We use water for many purposes as for drinking, and for many household activities. It is a renewable natural source available on earth. We conducted survey on tirupati water, as it contains high levels of total dissolved salts which causes many skin and hair fall problems like hair fall, dandroff, knee and joint pains. TDS is the amount of organic and inorganic material present in specific volume of water such as metals, minerals, salts and ions. There was a need to reduce tds levels in water with the help of water softener. There are different types of softener are available they are salt based water softeners, salt free water softeners, dual tank water softeners, magnetic water softeners. Ion exchange resins are mainly used to reduce the calcium and magnesium levels present in water. Cation, anion and mixed bed resins are used for the softening of water in water softeners. Different types of salts are used to soften the water like borax, ammonia and calcium hydroxide. By the usage of resins we can remove the mineral depositions present in water.
Water softeners, Ion-exchange resin, TDS, Skin and hair fall issues, Cation, Anion, mixed bed resin
*Corresponding author; e-mail:
Cite this Chapter: Latha, S., U. Madhavi and Harishma, M., 2024. Water Softeners. In: K.Swathi (Ed.), Water Crisis Management and Water Quality Analysis. Excellent Publishers, India. pp. 46-54. doi:
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